22 de Julio de 2018
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Colección: Trends for a common future
Autor: Noel F. McGinn
Título: Toward International Cooperation in Education for the Integration of the Americas

The New Industrial Paradigm

There is a growing consensus that the latest stage in globalization includes a major shift in the dominant paradigm for industrial production, and the predication of a new model for development. These changes have great significance for both education and international cooperation (Oman, 1994).

The shift in organization for production is away from the factory or assembly line paradigm of the late 19th and early 20th century toward a paradigm sometimes called “flexible production”. The key differences between the two technologies of production relevant for our discussion can be summarized as follows.

a. the reorganization of production during the Industrial Revolution gained a one-time increase in productivity by capturing the knowledge of highly skilled craft workers, and converting that knowledge to rule-driven routine production processes controlled by management. Flexible production, on the other hand, seeks to stimulate continuous improvements in productivity by involving workers in decisions about production. Worker innovations in technology permit them to learn, that is, increase their knowledge and skills, while producing. The consequence is a continuous growth of production (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), 1992). Technological improvements made during the production process by workers are as significant as those resulting from design changes by engineers and scientists (Womack, Jones, & Roos, 1990).

b. The process of re-integration of thinking and doing should take place across all sectors of the organization, from design of the product to marketing and distribution. Integration of these various elements of the firm makes it possible to bring designers and producers together with clients. This shortens time to production, and time to market, which reduces the need for large inventories and increases sales. The integrated design-production-marketing system increases variety in products by permitting smaller “runs” or volume of production. These changes reduce the size of production sites, bringing workers and management in greater contact with each other.

c. Decision-making is carried out in groups, which are given control over the production process in return for responsibility for meeting objectives. Workers are less specialized and require a broader range of skills. Training is continuous and often collective. Wages are linked with group rather than individual performance.

d. Central to the management of flexible production is the availability of information about all aspects of the process at all times. This information has to be widely circulated across levels and divisions to insure coordination. Transmission of information within firms is facilitated by emphasis on inter-personal relations, corporate culture, and training in communication skills.

[INDEX] [Presentation] [Introduction] [The Evolution of International Cooperation in Education in the Americas] [Cooperation After Nationalism] [International Cooperation as Supranationalism] [Cooperation for International Development] [Resistance to Aid] [Cooperation as Collaboration within Latin America] [Cooperation as Structural Adjustment] [The Current Situation of Education in the Americas] [Current Status of Education] [Summary] [Current Forms of International Cooperation] [Aid as a Form of International Cooperation] [Varieties of Aid] [Uniformization as a Consequence of Aid] [Aid or Assistance from Bilateral and Multilateral Organizations] [Cooperation by Transnational Corporations] [Aid and Assistance from NGOs] [Aid by Philanthropic Foundations] [Aid Mediated through Educational Institutions] [International Cooperation in the Form of Collaboration] [Examples of Collaboration in Higher Education] [Obstacles to International Collaboration in Higher Education] [Examples of Collaboration Between Non-governmental Organizations] [Other Instances of Collaboration] [Summary] [Globalization and International Cooperation] [The New Industrial Paradigm] [Implications of the New Industrial Paradigm for Education] [The New Development Model] [An Outline of a New Paradigm for Education] [Alternative Approaches to International Cooperation in Education] [An Example of Regional Collaboration to Develop a New Paradigm] [Notes] [References]