19 de Abril de 2018
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Colección: Trends for a common future
Autor: Noel F. McGinn
Título: Toward International Cooperation in Education for the Integration of the Americas

Aid Mediated through Educational Institutions

Many programs of cooperation in higher education are directly between institutions. This includes some efforts financed by governments, and by philanthropic foundations. The Fulbright Program of the United States, for example, is funded by the U. S. government but most decisions about exchanges are made by faculty members from universities (Glazer, 1987; Sterns, 1987). LASPAU combines grants from the U. S. government with contributions by universities, and operates without government intervention (Tatto, 1987).

Programs of this kind are less likely to have the uniformizing effects attributed to the programs promoted earlier by U. S. foundations. The diversity in what is gained through cooperation is greater when aid comes from or is controlled directly by educational institutions rather than by agents of governments or philanthropic foundations. This is more likely to be true in universities that enjoy a high degree of autonomy, for example, elite private and public universities.20 There are many educational institutions, which increases the probability of diversity of perspective. These institutions have relatively few resources as compared to governments and foundations, which makes for relationships less severely skewed by imbalances in power and knowledge. Most educational institutions in aid-sending countries maintain at least the rhetoric of collegial governance, which can contribute to more reciprocal relationships with institutions in aid-receiving countries. As aid ultimately goes to individuals (professors and students) rather than to institutions, the range of beneficiaries is greater.

At one time, the major complaint against aid for professor and student exchange was the contribution of these programs to “brain drain”. Once students and professors acquired the language, skills and contacts required in the richer, aid-providing countries they were more likely to seek employment in those countries. A flood of studies in the 1970s documented these effects of brain drain on Latin America and the Caribbean. In recent years, however, the phenomenon has attracted less attention.21

Cooperation between institutions, or between members of institutions, is sometimes called “horizontal” cooperation to distinguish it from the “vertical”, one-direction- of-influence relationships often associated with bilateral and multilateral assistance agencies (Balan, 1993; Farrell, 1994). Programs like Fulbright and LASPAU encourage horizontal relationships and occasionally result in joint activities by the participating institutions.

[INDEX] [Presentation] [Introduction] [The Evolution of International Cooperation in Education in the Americas] [Cooperation After Nationalism] [International Cooperation as Supranationalism] [Cooperation for International Development] [Resistance to Aid] [Cooperation as Collaboration within Latin America] [Cooperation as Structural Adjustment] [The Current Situation of Education in the Americas] [Current Status of Education] [Summary] [Current Forms of International Cooperation] [Aid as a Form of International Cooperation] [Varieties of Aid] [Uniformization as a Consequence of Aid] [Aid or Assistance from Bilateral and Multilateral Organizations] [Cooperation by Transnational Corporations] [Aid and Assistance from NGOs] [Aid by Philanthropic Foundations] [Aid Mediated through Educational Institutions] [International Cooperation in the Form of Collaboration] [Examples of Collaboration in Higher Education] [Obstacles to International Collaboration in Higher Education] [Examples of Collaboration Between Non-governmental Organizations] [Other Instances of Collaboration] [Summary] [Globalization and International Cooperation] [The New Industrial Paradigm] [Implications of the New Industrial Paradigm for Education] [The New Development Model] [An Outline of a New Paradigm for Education] [Alternative Approaches to International Cooperation in Education] [An Example of Regional Collaboration to Develop a New Paradigm] [Notes] [References]