15 de Diciembre de 2018
Portal Educativo de las Américas
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Colección: Trends for a common future
Autor: Noel F. McGinn
Título: Toward International Cooperation in Education for the Integration of the Americas

Varieties of Aid

Varieties of aid can be further classified according to their impact on the identity of the receiver. Some versions of this form of cooperation are based on the belief that the deficit in the receiving country is a result of the wrong policies or structures or customs. Changing these to match policies, structures, customs of the sending country will diminish the receiver’s deficit. Aid is given when the receiving country agrees to conditions negotiated or imposed by the lender or grantor.

Sometimes the conditions are justified by reference to the superior development of the lender or grantor, but most often by claims that the conditions are consistent with universal principles based on scientific research. The range of alternatives considered likely to be effective, however, is relatively narrow, and often overlooks unique conditions in the country to receive assistance. Given the procedures followed by international agencies to identify problems requiring assistance, it is not surprising that their recommendations match the perspective on education and development that dominates in their organizations.11

A second form of cooperation as aid does not seek to change the practices of the receiving country to match those of or recommended by the giver. Aid or assistance is given, but without conditionalities and without direction from the giver on how the receiver should change in order to improve performance. This kind of cooperation is more likely to provide capital or commodity aid than it is to provide technical assistance. It has been associated with some bilateral assistance agencies and international NGOs.

[INDEX] [Presentation] [Introduction] [The Evolution of International Cooperation in Education in the Americas] [Cooperation After Nationalism] [International Cooperation as Supranationalism] [Cooperation for International Development] [Resistance to Aid] [Cooperation as Collaboration within Latin America] [Cooperation as Structural Adjustment] [The Current Situation of Education in the Americas] [Current Status of Education] [Summary] [Current Forms of International Cooperation] [Aid as a Form of International Cooperation] [Varieties of Aid] [Uniformization as a Consequence of Aid] [Aid or Assistance from Bilateral and Multilateral Organizations] [Cooperation by Transnational Corporations] [Aid and Assistance from NGOs] [Aid by Philanthropic Foundations] [Aid Mediated through Educational Institutions] [International Cooperation in the Form of Collaboration] [Examples of Collaboration in Higher Education] [Obstacles to International Collaboration in Higher Education] [Examples of Collaboration Between Non-governmental Organizations] [Other Instances of Collaboration] [Summary] [Globalization and International Cooperation] [The New Industrial Paradigm] [Implications of the New Industrial Paradigm for Education] [The New Development Model] [An Outline of a New Paradigm for Education] [Alternative Approaches to International Cooperation in Education] [An Example of Regional Collaboration to Develop a New Paradigm] [Notes] [References]