18 de Enero de 2019
Portal Educativo de las Américas
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Colección: Trends for a common future
Autor: Noel F. McGinn
Título: Toward International Cooperation in Education for the Integration of the Americas


International assistance agencies have played a central role in stimulating and maintaining international cooperation in education in the Americas, and perhaps most forms of cooperation as collaboration are the result of an initial period of cooperation as aid. The effects of aid depend on the orientation of the aid-giving institution. Until recently the dominant perspective on aid has been that aid-giving agencies could make up for deficiencies in the receiving country or organization. In general there has been a consensus among those sharing this point of view with respect to deficiencies in education, and the best ways to overcome them. That is, these agencies have had a common perspective on the “best practices” required to improve education around the world. Aid has been given in a form intended to change the policies and practices of receiving countries, and to direct them toward a general world model of education.

One consequence of this pressure for uniformization has been a general reduction in the diversity of education in the Americas in terms of structure, process and content, accompanied by a modest improvement in overall levels of coverage and quality. At the same time, however, disparities within and between countries, in terms of coverage and quality, have grown larger. Throughout the Americas criticisms of education are increasingly strident and similar. These criticisms deal more with issues of purpose and direction of education and less with levels of funding and distribution of resources.

Almost all aid has been given to individual countries, most through governments with the portion funneled through NGOs increasing in recent years. Even though the larger issues are, as a consequence of cooperation-as-aid’s contribution to uniformization, increasingly similar throughout the Americas, relatively little aid has been given to support programs of collaboration between countries in the joint resolution of common problems. The dominant philosophy of aid with its insistence on application of “best practices” invented elsewhere has distracted countries and the region from exploration of new, more situationally-appropriate forms and content of education. The dominant form of international cooperation in education in the Americas has lagged behind in the race toward globalization in other aspects of human life.27

[INDEX] [Presentation] [Introduction] [The Evolution of International Cooperation in Education in the Americas] [Cooperation After Nationalism] [International Cooperation as Supranationalism] [Cooperation for International Development] [Resistance to Aid] [Cooperation as Collaboration within Latin America] [Cooperation as Structural Adjustment] [The Current Situation of Education in the Americas] [Current Status of Education] [Summary] [Current Forms of International Cooperation] [Aid as a Form of International Cooperation] [Varieties of Aid] [Uniformization as a Consequence of Aid] [Aid or Assistance from Bilateral and Multilateral Organizations] [Cooperation by Transnational Corporations] [Aid and Assistance from NGOs] [Aid by Philanthropic Foundations] [Aid Mediated through Educational Institutions] [International Cooperation in the Form of Collaboration] [Examples of Collaboration in Higher Education] [Obstacles to International Collaboration in Higher Education] [Examples of Collaboration Between Non-governmental Organizations] [Other Instances of Collaboration] [Summary] [Globalization and International Cooperation] [The New Industrial Paradigm] [Implications of the New Industrial Paradigm for Education] [The New Development Model] [An Outline of a New Paradigm for Education] [Alternative Approaches to International Cooperation in Education] [An Example of Regional Collaboration to Develop a New Paradigm] [Notes] [References]