19 de Julio de 2018
Portal Educativo de las Américas
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Colección: Trends for a common future
Autor: Noel F. McGinn
Título: Toward International Cooperation in Education for the Integration of the Americas

Cooperation for International Development

A major shift in international cooperation in the Americas occurred in the 1960s. The success of the Marshall Plan in Europe had generated a widespread belief in the concept of “development.” Expanding production in the United States had surpassed the absorptive capacity of U.S. consumers, and producers sought new markets. In Latin America several military regimes collapsed and were replaced by governments that seemed to identify too closely with the Soviet Union and economic philosophies contrary to Western capitalism. A new government in the United States announced a new proactive stance with respect to the Americas, an “alliance for progress” that would link nations together in a new effort to achieve democracy and prosperity.

Education was a critical element of this effort, based on the belief that expansion of education had been important factor in the economic growth of the industrialized nations of the world. Education was considered one of the major contributors to “modernization”, and “development” replaced nation building as the primary objective of education. “International assistance” agencies were created or expanded in European countries that had experienced economic “takeoff”. The shift in emphasis in the United States was reflected by the replacement of ICA by the Agency for International Development (USAID). “Aid” (as transfers of funds) became a major form of international cooperation and the sources of funds became (euphemistically) known as “donors”. Non-governmental organizations began to decline in relative importance. Many, worried by what was seen as the politicization of public education institutions, shifted their aid to private education.

Given the economic importance attributed to education, international cooperation (as aid) increased dramatically, primarily for expansion of access to schooling. The new technology of manpower planning developed principally by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) was used by governments and by international assistance agencies to justify long-term projects. Although the poorer countries in the Americas continued to receive assistance in the form of grants, others encouraged by the promise of high rates of economic growth committed themselves to pay back loans used to expand education. Loans and grants increasingly included “technical assistance”, another form of international cooperation in which “experts” almost always from richer countries gave advice and direction and, in some cases, did the work of professionals from the receiving country.

[INDEX] [Presentation] [Introduction] [The Evolution of International Cooperation in Education in the Americas] [Cooperation After Nationalism] [International Cooperation as Supranationalism] [Cooperation for International Development] [Resistance to Aid] [Cooperation as Collaboration within Latin America] [Cooperation as Structural Adjustment] [The Current Situation of Education in the Americas] [Current Status of Education] [Summary] [Current Forms of International Cooperation] [Aid as a Form of International Cooperation] [Varieties of Aid] [Uniformization as a Consequence of Aid] [Aid or Assistance from Bilateral and Multilateral Organizations] [Cooperation by Transnational Corporations] [Aid and Assistance from NGOs] [Aid by Philanthropic Foundations] [Aid Mediated through Educational Institutions] [International Cooperation in the Form of Collaboration] [Examples of Collaboration in Higher Education] [Obstacles to International Collaboration in Higher Education] [Examples of Collaboration Between Non-governmental Organizations] [Other Instances of Collaboration] [Summary] [Globalization and International Cooperation] [The New Industrial Paradigm] [Implications of the New Industrial Paradigm for Education] [The New Development Model] [An Outline of a New Paradigm for Education] [Alternative Approaches to International Cooperation in Education] [An Example of Regional Collaboration to Develop a New Paradigm] [Notes] [References]