20 de Julio de 2018
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Colección: Trends for a common future
Autor: Noel F. McGinn
Título: Toward International Cooperation in Education for the Integration of the Americas

International Cooperation as Supranationalism

World War II ended with a burst of enthusiasm by the peoples of the world for maintaining patterns of cooperation developed during the conflict. For at least a brief period it was thought that by means of international cooperation, problems associated with nationalism and colonialism would slowly disappear. National leaders and their peoples aspired through the creation of the United Nations to cooperation in efforts to reduce poverty and injustice throughout the world. International organizations such as UNESCO were created as vehicles through which countries could cooperate with the hope of less threat to national sovereignty.

The creation of UNESCO made it possible for representatives of poorer and richer nations to sit at the same table as equals in the exchange of ideas for the improvement of education. UNESCO officials were seen as sources of knowledge about new and promising practices in education, and occasionally as sources of funds for pilot projects that later would be taken over by national governments. Much of the expansion of cooperation in higher education occurred through non-governmental organizations, particularly private foundations, almost all of which were located in the United States. Cooperation included grants (or gifts) to found new and reinforce old educational institutions, primarily public universities.

Education was not, however, a primary focus for international cooperation until the early 1960s. In the early years more attention was given to development of physical infrastructure which economic theory promoted as an engine for growth. Outside the Americas and especially in the newly independent countries of Africa and Asia, primary emphasis was given to education for nation building. The relatively small amounts of grants and loans available through what was then known as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (now the World Bank), regional development banks and bilateral assistance agencies (for example, the International Cooperation Administration of the United States), went to school construction.

[INDEX] [Presentation] [Introduction] [The Evolution of International Cooperation in Education in the Americas] [Cooperation After Nationalism] [International Cooperation as Supranationalism] [Cooperation for International Development] [Resistance to Aid] [Cooperation as Collaboration within Latin America] [Cooperation as Structural Adjustment] [The Current Situation of Education in the Americas] [Current Status of Education] [Summary] [Current Forms of International Cooperation] [Aid as a Form of International Cooperation] [Varieties of Aid] [Uniformization as a Consequence of Aid] [Aid or Assistance from Bilateral and Multilateral Organizations] [Cooperation by Transnational Corporations] [Aid and Assistance from NGOs] [Aid by Philanthropic Foundations] [Aid Mediated through Educational Institutions] [International Cooperation in the Form of Collaboration] [Examples of Collaboration in Higher Education] [Obstacles to International Collaboration in Higher Education] [Examples of Collaboration Between Non-governmental Organizations] [Other Instances of Collaboration] [Summary] [Globalization and International Cooperation] [The New Industrial Paradigm] [Implications of the New Industrial Paradigm for Education] [The New Development Model] [An Outline of a New Paradigm for Education] [Alternative Approaches to International Cooperation in Education] [An Example of Regional Collaboration to Develop a New Paradigm] [Notes] [References]