22 de Julio de 2018
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Colección: Trends for a common future
Autor: Noel F. McGinn
Título: Toward International Cooperation in Education for the Integration of the Americas

Cooperation After Nationalism

These patterns shifted with the rise of nationalism in the latter part of the 19th century. The Latin American countries created, at least on paper, national systems of education ostensibly governed by central ministries. Central governments began to seek total control of revenue sources, and of education, both public and private. Cooperation was now expected to have government approval, if not be directly with and through the government. Different versions of the concept of the “common school”, borrowed from and lent by France and the United States, percolated through the rest of the Americas, and were transformed according to national values and political processes.

Centralization of authority for education increased apace in the early 20th century, as the concepts of rule-driven factory production and scientific management were applied to the organization of public education. In the United States, fewer people governed more schools, as control passed from neighborhood to citywide school boards, now run by professionals and businesspeople instead of ordinary citizens. In Latin America, central government support did not meet the demand for schooling, with the consequence that the region lagged behind the United States and Canada in proportion of children attending school, and private education’s share of total enrollment grew to three times as large as in the North. Reaction to increased centralization in some countries contributed to separation of public universities from direct control by the government.

Centralization meant increased involvement of governments in “cooperative” activities. For example, in the early decades of the 20th century the United States participated actively in education in most of Central America and the Caribbean. This involvement was the outcome of the United States’ war with Spain, and consequent (self-justified) assumption of responsibility for the political and economic development of countries in this region of the Americas. Engagement took the form of direct management of education in some countries, supervision in others, and financial support in others. In each country, U.S. activities in education benefited some groups but provoked opposition, sometimes violent, from others.

These relationships seldom are cited as instances of cooperation, but they fit the term’s definition and call attention to an essential theme of this paper. Actors, even those with sharply different interests, can cooperate in some activities that generate a mutual benefit for both without losing their unique identities. The slave who cooperates with a master, for example, remains a slave even though both may benefit from the cooperation. Not all forms of cooperation require that participants have equal access to power and resources.

[INDEX] [Presentation] [Introduction] [The Evolution of International Cooperation in Education in the Americas] [Cooperation After Nationalism] [International Cooperation as Supranationalism] [Cooperation for International Development] [Resistance to Aid] [Cooperation as Collaboration within Latin America] [Cooperation as Structural Adjustment] [The Current Situation of Education in the Americas] [Current Status of Education] [Summary] [Current Forms of International Cooperation] [Aid as a Form of International Cooperation] [Varieties of Aid] [Uniformization as a Consequence of Aid] [Aid or Assistance from Bilateral and Multilateral Organizations] [Cooperation by Transnational Corporations] [Aid and Assistance from NGOs] [Aid by Philanthropic Foundations] [Aid Mediated through Educational Institutions] [International Cooperation in the Form of Collaboration] [Examples of Collaboration in Higher Education] [Obstacles to International Collaboration in Higher Education] [Examples of Collaboration Between Non-governmental Organizations] [Other Instances of Collaboration] [Summary] [Globalization and International Cooperation] [The New Industrial Paradigm] [Implications of the New Industrial Paradigm for Education] [The New Development Model] [An Outline of a New Paradigm for Education] [Alternative Approaches to International Cooperation in Education] [An Example of Regional Collaboration to Develop a New Paradigm] [Notes] [References]