19 de Septiembre de 2018
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Colección: Trends for a common future
Autor: Noel F. McGinn
Título: Toward International Cooperation in Education for the Integration of the Americas

CHAPTER I

The Evolution of International Cooperation in Education in the Americas

The varied meanings included under the general rubric of cooperation are best understood by a brief historical review of its various forms in the Americas. Even before Independence, Americans in the North and in the South corresponded with and visited each other. The ideas of liberty were discussed throughout the hemisphere, and the achievement of freedom in one region fanned the flames of revolution in others. Ideas, and men and women, from Europe and Africa contributed to the struggle, and Americans (and Europeans) crossed colonial boundaries to fight side by side with others in the pursuit of self-rule in the Americas.

There is a parallel history in the development of education. Well known is the cooperation of: Joseph Lancaster who shared his monitorial method developed in England with educators in North and South America; Andres Bello, Venezuelan born but educated in European ideas in England, who founded the University of Chile; and Domingo Sarmiento, who traded plans for improved schooling with Horace Mann and his wife, and brought New England teachers to Argentina. To these we can add the countless religious missionaries who brought alphabets and books; later secular missionary educators who brought teacher training and new pedagogy; and thousands of individuals who traveled and studied and taught in others’ countries.

These instances of cooperation were taking place when schools still were controlled locally, each unique in its content and methods and quality. Cooperation within the Americas and with the outside was primarily not between governments but instead between private citizens and organizations. Schools were identified with particular philosophies of education rather than with national cultures or governments, and were remarkably diverse.

[INDEX] [Presentation] [Introduction] [The Evolution of International Cooperation in Education in the Americas] [Cooperation After Nationalism] [International Cooperation as Supranationalism] [Cooperation for International Development] [Resistance to Aid] [Cooperation as Collaboration within Latin America] [Cooperation as Structural Adjustment] [The Current Situation of Education in the Americas] [Current Status of Education] [Summary] [Current Forms of International Cooperation] [Aid as a Form of International Cooperation] [Varieties of Aid] [Uniformization as a Consequence of Aid] [Aid or Assistance from Bilateral and Multilateral Organizations] [Cooperation by Transnational Corporations] [Aid and Assistance from NGOs] [Aid by Philanthropic Foundations] [Aid Mediated through Educational Institutions] [International Cooperation in the Form of Collaboration] [Examples of Collaboration in Higher Education] [Obstacles to International Collaboration in Higher Education] [Examples of Collaboration Between Non-governmental Organizations] [Other Instances of Collaboration] [Summary] [Globalization and International Cooperation] [The New Industrial Paradigm] [Implications of the New Industrial Paradigm for Education] [The New Development Model] [An Outline of a New Paradigm for Education] [Alternative Approaches to International Cooperation in Education] [An Example of Regional Collaboration to Develop a New Paradigm] [Notes] [References]