<<Biblioteca Digital del Portal<<Revista Interamericana de Bibliografía (RIB)<<Revista Interamericana de Bibliografía (RIB) 1998, No. I<<Artículo
Colección: Revista Interamericana de Bibliografía (RIB)
1. Foreign nationals had been present in Chile since the late Colonial Period and many served as mercenaries in the war for Independence. During the National Period hundreds of foreign entrepreneurs went to Chile to seek their fortunes in mining and commerce. Still, a sizeable number were enticed not by fortune but rather by the intellectual benefits the small, stable republic had to offer them. Diego Portales, a leading political leader during the 1830s, was perhaps the greatest proponent of inviting foreign intellectuals. Under his tutelage the government enticed many with commissions to create schools and institutes and with government positions. There is no single work on these individuals and their collective impact. Some of the most outstanding were the Venezuelan Andrés Bello, the Argentine Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, French scientists Claude Gay, Ambrosio Lozier, Pierre Pissis, and the economist J.G. Seneuil Courcelle. The German Rudolf Amadeus Phillippi promoted German colonization in the Chilean south and was killed by Patagonian Indians near the Chilean outpost at Magallanes in 1852. The Spaniard Antonio Gorbea taught mathematics at the University of Chile.
2. Domeykoa is a plant first described by Domeyko in 1839. Characterized by bifurcated, broad and opposed leaves, the Domeykoa is a fragile plant which grows only in the alluvial valleys of the Atacama Desert. The Cordillera de Domeyko is a low subrange of the Andes foothills located east of Antofagasta, extending between 23 and 27 degrees longitude. Domeyko conducted mineralogical surveys there in 1844.
3. The terms Araucanian and Mapuche will be used interchangeably, as will Indian, Amerindian, Chilean natives, and indigenous peoples. Araucanian is a Spanish adaptation of the place-name of Arauco located just south of Conceptión, the point of initial Spanish intrusion into the region. The term Mapuche is aboriginal and is derived from mapu, or earth, and che, for human, thus, earth-human. The Chilean Indians originally living between the Itata and Imperial Rivers refered to themselves as Mapuches.
4. The terminology accommodation and integration is a general description of Crown policies with respect to unassimilated indigenous peoples. Richard Slatta compares these strategies with more hostile policies of extermination and marginalization that were used in republican Argentina and the United States. See Slattas Civilization Battles Barbarism: Argentine Frontier Strategies, 1516-1880. Revista Interamericana de Bilbiografia 39 (1989) 2:177. Although Chile adopted an Indian policy that is vaguely reminiscent of similar official programs being implemented in Venezuela and, at one time, in the US, it produced short-term benefits before their ultimate failure. The reasons for this failure are examined in my own dissertation, Frontier Reform and Araucanian Involvement in the Revolution of 1859 in Southern Chile, diss., UCLA, 1991.
5. Domeyko recorded the events of his Araucanian trip in his autobiography, Mis Viajes: Memorias de un Exiliado, 2 vols., trans. Mariano Rawicz (Santiago: Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile, 1977). The work was originally published in Polish under the title, Moje Podróze. Pamietniki Wygnanca, portions of which were translated and published in Spanish in 1946 by the University of Chile. His better known work, Araucanía i sus habitantes: Recuerdos de un viaje en las provincias meridionales de Chile en los meses de enero y febrero de 1845, first appeared in article form in the official government newspaper, El Araucano. It was published as a book in 1845 and reissued various times afterward. Araucanía has been published abroad also in Polish language versions.
6. Ignacio Domeyko, Mis Viajes (Santiago: Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile, 1977) I: 179.
7. See explanation in Note 3.
8. Alvaro Jara, Legislación indigenista de Chile (Mexico: Ediciones Especiales, Instituto Indigenista Latinoamericana, 1956) 28; José Bengoa, Historia del Pueblo Mapuche (Santiago: Editorial Sur, 1985) 146.
9. Some royalist detachments took refuge in Araucanía after Independence had been won in Santiago and the Central Valley. They found allies in the Mapuches and waged a guerrilla warknown as the Guerra a Muerteagainst the Chilean government until 1826. Although the Araucanians participated on the royalist side during the wars for independence, they retreated and took little action after the Guerra a Muerte. See Encina, Historia 13: 125.
10. Ricardo Ferrando Keun, Y asi nació la frontera: conquista, guerra, ocupación, pacificación. 1550-1900 (Santiago: Editorial Antártica, 1986) 312.
11. The frontier Intendancy of Concepción experienced a one hundred percent increase in population between 1835 and 1844. Frontier officials also reported a sharp increase in the number of land transactions. Prior to 1835 only eighty-five sales had been made. During the next fourteen years 183 were registered.
12. Senator José Diego Benavente of Concepción led the militarist movement in the Araucanians debate in congress. He proposed a formal project in 1853 for a massive military campaign and a repatriation program that would remove all Araucanians from the south to the barren wastelands of Copiapó. See Sesiones del congreso nacional; Cámara de Senadores: 24 August 1853, 201-204.
13. Domeyko, Viajes II: 637.
14. Domeyko, Viajes II: 664.
15. Domeyko gives a lengthy description of Lozier and his dealings in Araucanía. See Viajes II: 657-660.
16. It remains unclear what impact Buffon and his monumental Natural History had on Domeyko. It is certain that Domeyko had read some of the work during his student days in Poland and, especially, while at the School of Mines in Paris. See Mis Viajes, I: 177 for his relationship to the Marquis of Dres, who was an associate of Buffon. For a brief introduction on Buffon, see Gordon S. Wood, The Bigger the Beast the Better, American History Illustrated 17:8 (1982) 30-37.
17. Domeyko, Viajes II: 682-683.
18. Domeyko, Viajes II: 683-684.
19. Domeyko, Viajes II: 690-691.
20. Domeyko, Viajes II: 734.
21. Domeyko, Viajes II: 727.
22. Domeyko, Viajes II: 793.
23. Ignacio Domeyko, Araucanía i sus habitantes (Buenos Aires: Editorial Francisco de Aguirre, 1971) 87.
24. Domeyko, Viajes II: 664.
25. Domeyko, Araucanía 138.
26. Domeyko, Araucanía 139-141.
27. Domeyko, Araucanía 131-132.
28. Domeyko, Araucanía 123; Domeyko, Mis Viajes II: 793.
29. Domeyko, Araucanía 143.
30. El Araucano. 16 September 1846.
31. El Araucano. 16 September 1846.
32. General José Maria de la Cruz to Minister of Interior, Concepción, 2 July 1847. Archivo del Ministerio del Interior, Legajo 244, ff. 131. In Archivo Nacional de Chile.
33. Antonio Varas, Informe presentado a la cámara de Diputados por el Visitador Judicial de la República (Santiago: Imprenta Julio Belín, 1849) 6-7.
34. Jara, Legislación indigenista 31-32.
35. Jara, Legislación indigenista 32; Also see Herbert L. Ellis, The Indian Policy of the Republic of Chile, diss.,
Columbia U. 1956, 65.
36. Domeyko felt a sense of accomplishment, though short-lived, about his work to protect and civilize the Araucanians. See his comments in Domeyko, Viajes II: 793.