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Revista Interamericana de Bibliografía (RIB)
Número: 1-4
Título: 1997
Sección: Artículos / Articles


1. I presented an earlier version of this paper at the Social Science History Association meeting, Baltimore, November 5, 1993. Thanks to Tom Hall, John Markoff, and Bill Donovan for helpful comments. Several of the articles discussed in this essay have been reprinted in David J. Weber and Jane M. Rausch eds., Where Cultures Meet: Frontiers in Latin America. (Wilmington, Delaware, 1994).
2. Patricia Nelson Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West (New York, 1987), 25. See Turner, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” reprinted in Weber and Rausch, Where Cultures Meet, 1-18.
3. On changing definitions of the term, see Fulmer Moody, “Notes on the History of the Word Frontier,” Agricultural History, 22:2 (April 1948); Lucien Febvre, “Frontière: The Word and the Concept,” in Peter Burke, ed., A New Kind of History from the Writings of Lucien Febvre (London, 1973).
4. Michael S. Cross, ed., The Turner Thesis and the Canadas: The Debate on the Impact of the Canadian Environment (Toronto, 1970) includes reprints of many of the key essays on the topic.
5. Walter N. Sage, “Some Aspects of the Frontier in Canadian History,” Canadian Historical Association Report, 1928, 67-72; Marcus L. Hansen and John B. Brebner, The Mingling of the Canadian and American Peoples, vol. 1 (Toronto, 1940); J. L. McDougall, “The Frontier School and Canadian History,” Canadian Historical Association Report, 1929, 121-125.
6. F. H. Underhill, “The Development of National Political Parties in Canada,” Canadian Historical Review, 16:4 (1935); E. H. Oliver, The Winning of the Frontier (Toronto, 1930).
7. A. L. Burt, “The Frontier in the History of New France,” Canadian Historical Association Report, 1940, 93-99.
8. A. R. M. Lower, “Some Neglected Aspects of Canadian History,” Canadian Historical Association Report, 1929; see also Lower, “The Origins of Democracy in Canada,” Canadian Historical Association Report, 1930, 65-70.
9. Lower quoted in Zaslow, “Frontier Hypothesis,” 159.
10. George F. G. Stanley, “Western Canada and the Frontier Thesis,” Canadian Historical Association Report, 1940, 104-114.
11. Morris Zaslow, “The Frontier Hypothesis in Recent Historiography,” Canadian Historical Review, 29:2 (June 1948), 153-167.
12. J. M. S. Careless, “Frontierism, Metropolitanism, and Canadian History,” Canadian Historical Review, 35:1 (March 1954), 1-21, quotation 18.
13. Gilman M. Ostrander, “Frederick Jackson Turner’s Canadian Frontier Thesis,” Canadian Historical Review, 64:4 (December 1983), 604-611.
14. David H. Breen, “The Turner Thesis and the Canadian West,” in Lewis H. Thomas, ed., Essays on Western History in Honour of Lewis Gwynne Thomas (Edmonton, 1976), 147.
15. Breen, “Turner Thesis,” 147-156.
16. Robin W. Winks, “Frontiers, Canada,” in Howard R. Lamar, ed., The Reader’s Encyclopedia of the American West (New York, 1977), 416-419.
17. Emilio Daireaux, Vida y costumbres en La Plata, 2 vols. (Buenos Aires, 1888), 2:197-202.
18. Mary Lombardi, “The Frontier in Brazilian History: An Historiographical Essay,” Pacific Historical Review, 44:4 (November 1975), 444-446.
19. Víctor Andrés Belaúnde, “The Frontier in Hispanic America,” Rice Institute Pamphlet, 10:4 (October 1923), 202-213, reprinted in Weber and Rausch, Where Cultures Meet, 33-41.
20. Silvio Zavala, “The Frontiers of Hispanic America” in Walker Wyman, and Clifton Kroeber, eds., The Frontier in Perspective (Madison, 1957), 35-58, reprinted in Weber and Rausch, Where Cultures Meet, 42-50.
21. Arthur S. Aiton, “Latin-American Frontiers,” Canadian Historical Association Report, 1940, 100-104, reprinted in Weber and Rausch, Where Cultures Meet, 19-25.
22. Mary Lombardi, “Frontier in Brazilian History,” 447-448.
23. Hebe Clementi, “National Identity and the Frontier,” American Studies International, 18:3-4 (1981), 36-44, reprinted in Weber and Rausch, Where Frontiers Meet, 141-50.
24. —————, “National Identity,” 42. See also Clodomir Vianna Moog, “Bandeirantes and Pioneers,” reprinted in Weber and Rausch, Where Cultures Meet, 165-72.
25. This section is based on David J. Weber, “Turner, the Boltonians, and the Borderlands,” American Historical Review, 91:1 (February 1986), 66-81.
26. Weber, “Turner,” 69.
27. —————, “Turner,” 77.
28. —————, “Turner,” 80.
29. Domingo F. Sarmiento, Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of the Tyrants; or, Civilization and Barbarism, trans. Mrs. Horace [Mary] Mann, Reprint, orig. 1868 (New York, 1971); Sarmiento, “Frontier Barbarism,” in Weber and Rausch, Where Cultures Meet, 26-32. Euclides da Cunha, Rebellion in the Backlands, trans. Samuel Putnam, orig. Os sertões, (Chicago, 1944). For a summary and critique of Sarmiento’s thought in Richard W. Slatta, Gauchos and the Vanishing Frontier, revised ed. (Lincoln, 1992), 180-184.
30. Silvio R. Duncan Baretta, and John Markoff, “Civilization and Barbarism: Cattle Frontiers in Latin America,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 20 (October 1978), 611.
31. For a summary see “The Great Frontier” reprinted in Weber and Rausch, Where Cultures Meet, 51-63.
32. Thomas D. Hall, Social Change in the Southwest, 1350-1880 (Lawrence, Kansas, 1989), 20.
33. —————, Social Change, p. 24; Christopher Chase-Dunn, and Thomas D. Hall, “Epilogue,” in Chase-Dunn and Hall, eds., Core/Periphery Relations in Precapitalist Worlds (Boulder, 1991), 285.
34. Martin Ridge, “Frederick Jackson Turner, Ray Allen Billington, and American Frontier History,” Western Historical Quarterly, 19:1 (January 1988), 20. Frederic L. Paxon surveys “A Generation of the Frontier Hypothesis: 1893-1932,” Pacific Historical Review, vol. 2, 1933).
35. Richard Maxwell Brown, “Western Violence: Structure, Values, Myth,” Western Historical Quarterly, 25:1 (February 1993), 6.
36. —————, “Western Violence,” 13. Maxwell draws upon Slatta, Bandidos: The Varieties of Latin American Banditry (Westport, 1987), and Cowboys of the Americas (New Haven, 1990, 1994).