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Revista Interamericana de Bibliografía (RIB)
Número: 1-4
Título: 1997
Sección: Artículos / Articles


1. Ángel Zúñiga Huete, Morazán: Un representativo de la democracia americana (Mexico: Botas, 1947) 360.
2. Manuel Montúfar y Coronado, Memorias para la historia de la revolución de Centroamérica (San Salvador, 1905-06) 6 vol. This work is cited frequently as the Memorias de Jalapa. Montúfar published the first edition from Jalapa, Mexico, in 1832.
Alejandro Marure. Bosquejo histórico de las revoluciones de Centroamérica, vol. I, II (Guatemala, 1837).
3. Montúfar y Coronado describes Morazán before the war as a shiftless clerk disappointing to his employer. Ibid. volume I, 137.
4. Montúfar y Coronado, 138.
5. Miguel García Granados, Memórias del General Miguel García Granados (Guatemala, 1978).
6. Prologo to vol. I Alejandro Marure’s father was a martyr to Independence from Spain. Alejandro himself received a law degree from Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala City, 1822. He served in politics and education, being a deputy in the Guatemalan Assembly in 1831, a deputy to the Constitutional Congress 1839 (in the name of which he asked Morazán to assume dictatorial powers upon the end of his second presidential term, June 1839), and held the chair of world history at San Carlos.
7. At that time the federal capital was located in San Salvador. Alejandro Marure, Efémerides (Guatemala) 18.
8. When threatened by Napoleón’s troops, his family emigrated back to Guatemala in 1811. García Granados styles himself a Conservative-Liberal, and became disenchanted with Rafael Carrera’s increased reliance on the Guatemalan oligarchy. He therefor led a successful revolution in 1871, and after serving three years as provisional president, stepped down for his co-revolutionary, Ruffino Barrios.
9. García Granados, op. cit., 283.
10. Montúfar y Coronado, op. cit. vol. I, 138.
11. Lorenzo Montúfar y Rivera, Reseña histórica de Centroamérica, 7. vols. (Guatemala City, 1878-1888). Montúfar belonged to an old criollo family which came to Guatemala in 1661. He was educated and cosmopolitan, and traveled to the United States and Europe on diplomatic missions. A Conservative until the 1848 Liberal government. Echoing Positivism attitudes, he supported dictators such as Rufino Barrios (1874-1885) when he felt them necessary to advance Central American unity and development. Among other achievements, this lawyer held the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs and Public Education in several Central American governments, including that of Barrios from 1876 to 1882.
12. Reseña, v. 1, v.
13. The newspapers are El Amigo del Pueblo, a Liberal paper opposing the British consul, Frederick Chatfield; El Observador and El Tiempo, backing Conservative leader Juan José Aycinena, and El Progreso, a pair favorable to Morazán’s ally, J. Barrundia. E.G. Squier. accounts of travel in Nicaragua, 1850’s. Meeting Morazán on his 1839 flight from Guatemala City, John L. Stephens gives an objective yet forcefully sympathetic description used since Montúfar to build a favorable image of the general. John Lloyd Stephens, Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatán (New York, 2 vols., 1841).
14. Francisco Morazán, Memorias de David, y manifiesto al pueblo centroaméricano, found in his Memorias, Tegucigalpa, 1971 (París, 1970) {preámbulo 1953}. Impr. Calderón.
15. Lorenzo Montúfar. Reseña, volume III, 657.
16. Ruffino Barrios tried unsuccessfully in 1885 to unite Central America, and Nicaragua’s soon to be dictator José Santos Zelaya would also try military unification in—before leading one of the more ambitious political unification drives.
17. Lorenzo Montúfar, Francisco Morazán, San José, Costa Rica: Universitaria Centroamericana (EDUCA), 1970 (Guatemala, 1896), 27.
18. Ángel Zuñiga Huete, Morazán: Un representativo de la democracia americana (Mexico: Botas, 1947) 296-302.
19. Ramón Salazar. El Centenario del General Francisco Morazán: Homenaje de respeto que Guatemala dedica a su memoria (Guatemala, 1892) 18 and 15.
20. Ramón Rosa, and Marco Aurelio Soto were Liberal Honduran exiles, each holding a portfolio in Ruffino Barrio’s regime. When a Barrios-engineered coup installed his sycophant Soto in the Honduran presidency, Rosa followed as the Secretary of the executive council and the Positivism theoretician for Honduras. Marta Reina Argueta, Biografía intelectual de Ramón Rosa (Tegucigalpa, 1986) 93. Rosa, op. cit., 51.
Family and intellectial connection between del Valle, Herrera, and Morazán verified in José Reina Valenzuela. El Procer Dionisio de Herrera (estudio biográfico) (Tegucigalpa, 1965).
21. Rosa, op. cit., 13, 33.
22. Reyes, op, cit., 14.
23. Martínez López, prólogo, vi, vii.
24. Joaquín M. Rodas. Morazánida, de la epopeya, la tragedia y la apoteosis, 3.
25. Biographer Zúñiga Huetes lists twenty-seven.
26. Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Central America (San Francisco, 1887), Dana G. Munro. The Five Republics of Central America (New York, 1918), both described in “The Historiography of Central America Since 1830,” HAHR (1960): 551-552.
27. Mary Wilhelmine Williams, “The Ecclesiastical Policy of Francisco Morazán and the Other Central American Liberals,” HAHR III (May 1920): 143.
28. William Griffith, “The Historiography of Central America Since 1930,” HAHR (November 1965): 549-552.
29. Jorge Jiménez Solis, Francisco Morazán, su vida y su obra (Guatemala, 1952) 265. Ángel Zúñiga Huete, Morazán: Un representativo de la democracia americana (Mexico City, 1947) 311. Although Jorge Jímenez Solis wrote his biography for the 1942 centennial, the fact he didn’t publish it until 1952 is probably due to the Ubico government’s opposition to the centennial celebration and Solis’s consequent criticism.
30. Ibid., 220, 340.
31. Morazán’s grandfather was therefore part of the eighteenth century merchant immigration encouraged by the Bourbon Reform. Along with Francisco Morazán, this immigration provided the core of Central American independence: Aycinenas, García Granados, and Irrisaris in Guatemala; Sacasas, Arguellos, Lacayos, and Chamorros in Nicaragua; Lindo y Goicochea in Costa Rica.
Although at least one source maintains Morazán’s grandfather became one of the largest landowners and interior merchants in Central America, Zúñiga, like Solis, contrasts Morazán’s modest background with that of other creole revolutionaries. One author who claimes Morazán’s family was wealthy is Miguel R. Ortega.
32. Ángel Zúñiga Huete, Morazán: Un representativo de la democracia americana (Mexico: Botas, 1947) 311.
33. Zúñiga Huetes, op cit., 35.
34. Noted Mexican author Luis Chávez Orozco delivered it over La Voz de Honduras radio station on July 29, 1941, inaugurating a cycle of talks in tribute to Morazán. Luis Chávez Orozco, Morazán, heroe continental (Tegucigalpa: Calderón, 1941).
35. Carlos A. Ferro, San Martín y Morazán (Tegucigalpa, 1961).
Ricardo Dueñas van Severen, Biografía del General Morazán (San Salvador, 1961) 443.
36. Miguel R. Ortega, Morazán: Laurel sin Ocaso, vol. I-III (Tegucigalpa, Talleres de Litográfica Honupak, 1991) 623, 648. Longino Becerra, Morazán revolucionario: El liberalismo como negación del ilumnismo (Tegucigalpa: Baktun, 1992).
37. Becerra, Ibid., 47.
38. William Griffith, “The Historiography of Central America Since 1930,” 553.
39. Manuel Cobos Batres, Carrera (Guatemala City, 3er Cuaderno (n.d.)).
40. Agustín Mencos F., Rasgos biográficos de Francisco Morazán (Guatemala City).
41. Clemente Marroquín Rojas, Carrera y Morazán (Guatemala: José de Pinada Ibarra, 1971) 398. Marroquín Rojas is also a noted Guatemalan journalist and writer, whose works include Ecce Homo and La Bomba, both definitive works on Guatemalan dictator Cabrera. Méndez Montenegro was a radical opponent of Guatemala’s military regime which overthrew the elected democratic regime of Arbenz in 1954. Montenegro’s attempt to change the government through the electoral process split the insurgents attempting to overthrow the military. Half supported Montenegro. Montenegro’s subsequent capitulation to military demands left the rebel effort weak for a decade and a further erosion in faith in the electoral ability to engender change. See James Dunkerley, Power in the Isthmus (London, 1990).
42. Marroquín Rojas, op. cit., 8.
43. Marroquín Rojas, Ibid., 100.
44. Apartado, M. del, Vida del Morazán: Basada en documentos, unpublished (Guatemala, n. d.), located in the Latin American Library of Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana.
45. Ibid., Introduction.
46. Robert S. Chamberlain, Francisco Morazán, Champion of Central American Federation (University of Miami Hispanic-American Studies 9), Miami, 1950, 58.
47. Mario Rodríguez, Palmerstonian Diplomat in Central America: Frederick Chatfield, Esq. (Tucson, 1964); Bradford E. Burns, Poverty of Progress (Los Angeles, 1980); Ralph Lee Woodward, Rafael Carrera and the Emergence of the Republic of Guatemala, 1821-1871 (Athens, GA 1993); Mario Rodríguez, Miriam Williford, R. L. Woodward, Jr., and W. J. Griffith, Applied Enlightenment: 19th-century Liberalism (New Orleans, 1972).
48. William J. Griffith, “The Personal Archive of Francisco Morazán,” Philological and Documentary Studies II (Publication 12, Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, 1977), 197-286.
49. Ortega, op. cit., vol. I, 608.
50. Griffith, Personal archive, 211.    
51. The Honduran government granted Morazán the contract the day after Morazán, as agent for the federal government, successfully negotiated a settlement between the federal and state governments over customs duties from the port of Trujillo, which was more lenient to the state than otherwise may have been. Document no. 7 and 8, Griffith, ibid.
52. As depicted in Morazán’s letter to the president of Salvador, describing himself as coming at personal sacrifice back from exile to drive the British from the Moskito Coast and San Juan del Norte, the Nicaraguan port Britain seized in the name of the Moskito king. Arturo Humberto Montes, Morazán y la Federación Centroamericana (México, 1958) 286-7.
53. Griffith, ibid. His analysis in “missing” footnote 41, supplied courtesy Dr. Woodward.
54. “The Historiography of Central America Since 1930,” HAHR (November 1965): 548-569.
55. Griffith, Ibid., 211.
56. T. L. Karnes, The Failure of Union, Central America, 1824-1975 (Tempe, 1976) 69-70.