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Colección: La Educación
Número: (129-131) I,III
Año: 1998

TABLE 4
ROLES AND RESPONSABILITIES OF SELECTED ENVIRONMENTAL INSTITUTIONS IN LAC
Country
Market-based Incentives Mentioned in Legislation
Approach to Environment Assessment
Decentralized Role
Mechanisms for Public
Participation
Barbados
Economic instruments permitted
Planning agencies
No
Not defined
Bolivia
Economic instruments permitted
Specifies self-assessment for existing activities; requires EA on all new activities with 5-year compliance deadline
Water and forestry
decentralized; municipalities have major responsibility for local conditions
Extensive. Permits public
review and public civil
actions in all environment issues
Brazil
Allows contributions from
useers of environ. resources
Operation licenses issued based on EA requirements
State agencies maintain major responsibility
EA reports and licensing require public input
Chile
Advocates polluter pays principle
Relevant law not yet implemented
No
Present in law
Colombia
Economic instruments for
user pays and polluting
industry
Required before licneses and permits are issued
Implementation and enforcement through the regional and urban agencies
Consultation require under
Constituton and Law 99
Ecuador
No
Sectoral responsibilities in different ministries
Municipalities of major cities are beginning to take increased responsibility
As required in specific sectoral laws, e.g. mining law
Jamaica
No
Planning agencies
No
Not defined
Mexico
No
INE sets national standards and norms
Some in Mexico City metrolpolitan zone and in no.border area (US)
Not defined
Peru
No
General criteria for EA to be est.
No
Local and regional government coordination
Trinidad & Tobago
Incentive programs or mechanisms that encourage use of effective
environmental system
To be defined
No
Environmental clearance certificate requires public comment
Venezuela
No
Three permits reequired for land use, resource explolitations, and pollution control and mitigation
In process
Not defined