22 de Septiembre de 2018
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Colección:
La Educación
Número: (123-125) I,III
Año: 1996

NOTES

1. Graciela Riquelme, Crecimiento, competitividad y exclusión en América Latina: La construcción de alternativas desde la educación y la formación para el trabajo (Washington, DC: OAS, forthcoming).
2. Oscar Corvalán Vásquez, “Trends in Technical-Vocational and Secondary Education in Latin America,” La Educación 104 (1989): 16.
3. Corvalán Vásquez, 18.
4. The concept of “skill” is socially specific here, as it always is, but the typical equation of craftsmanship and skill is obsolete in this context. As Aronowitz and DiFazio point out, when science and technology are central to production, knowledge rather than skill define and dominate the process. See Stanley Aronowitz and William DiFazio, The Jobless Future. Sci-Tech and the Dogma of Work (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1994).
5. See Gary Gereffi and Lynn Hempel, “Latin America in the Global Economy: Running Faster to Stay in Place,” NACLA, Report on the Americas (Jan/Feb. 1996); Bradford Barham, et al., “Nontraditional Agricultural Exports in Latin America,” Latin American Research Review 27.2 (1992).
6. David Barbee, “Educación y empleo en la era de la informática y de las nuevas tecnologías,” Revista Interamericana de Educación de Adultos 1 (1992): 60.
7. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 1995.
8. Aronowitz and DiFazio, 193.
9. Barbara Garson, The Electronic Sweatshop. How Computers are Transforming the Office of the Future into the Factory of the Past (New York: Penguin Books, 1988).
10. With technological advance, or increasing investment in plant and equipment, the rate of profit tends to fall. “According to the OECD, in the aggregate, there was a long-term decline in the rate of profit in Europe after 1974.” (Joyce Kolko, Restructuring the World Economy (New York: Pantheon, 1988): 63-64). Around the world, particularly in non-financial companies, this pattern prevailed. In the United States, the profit rate (not the mass of profits) fell steadily after the early 1960s.
11. Beatrice Edwards, “Explotación de recursos naturales y humanos: La mujer, el ambiente y la educación,” La Educación 1 (1995): 33.
12. Fernando Reimers, “Education Finance in Latin America, Perils and Opportunities,” Education, Equity and Economic Competitiveness in the Americas: An Inter-American Dialogue Project, eds. Jeffrey Puryear and José Joaquín Brunner (Washington, DC: OAS, INTERAMER No. 37, 1995): 38.
13. Joseph Farrell, “Educational Cooperation in the Americas: A Review,” Education, Equity and Economic Competitiveness in the Americas: An Inter-American Dialogue Project, eds. Jeffrey Puryear and José Joaquín Brunner (Washington, DC: OAS, INTERAMER No. 37, 1995): 73.
14. Numerous proposals with significant intellectual support are circulating that advocate the transfer of financial resources from secondary to primary education. These proposals dovetail neatly with the emerging international division of labor, which assigns lower-skilled production processes to Latin America.