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La Educación
Número: (117) I
Año: 1994

Data Collection and Analysis

This study investigated the use of the BIE device with twenty-two elementary education student teachers and their cooperating teachers in a naturalistic setting during autumn quarter, 1992. The study, conducted at a large mid-western university, involved student teachers placed in three school districts representing urban and suburban areas and included seventeen schools (fourteen elementary and three middle schools). The investigation took nine weeks to complete.

Treatment groups in the investigation were student teachers in their last practicum experience before state certification who received audio-cuing or prompting via the BIE device from their cooperating teacher (experimental) and those who did not (control). The target skill, or dependent variable, was fourteen discrete teacher clarity behaviors (Figure 1) documented in the literature as observable and measurable (Hines 1981; Hamilton 1988; Metcalf 1989) and found to be easily cued or prompted in short, concise statements. Data collected included both descriptive and empirical evidence.


The focus of this article is the descriptive data gathered from the sources. The cooperative teachers utilized two self-reporting instruments to gather evidence of the effect and effectiveness of the BIE device. The first instrument used by the experimental group subjects only, a modified version of Metcalf’s (1989) Teaching Skills Obsefvation Instrument (partially illustrated in Figure 2), allowed the cooperating teacher to record the frequency and types of prompts given to the student teacher during each observation where the BIE was employed. In addition, notations were made regarding the effect each prompt had on the student teacher; that is, whether or not the student teacher responded to the prompt by attending to the behavior. The second source of data was the Cooperating Teachers Reflective Log. This instrument is a focused journal which was kept by all cooperating teacher subjects to record data regarding the type, subject and frequency of feedback given to the student teachers, as well as reaction to the supervision process. These logs contained both open-ended questions and Likert scaled items as partially illustrated below in Figure 3.


Finally, to collect data regarding the perceived effect and effectiveness of the BIE with student teachers in the experimental group, a survey instrument was utilized which included both open-ended questions and Likert scaled items. Using a format similar to the Cooperating Teachers Reflective Log, the Student Teacher Response Form focused on the perception of student teachers with such items as:

Discuss some specific strengths of using the BIE device ...

Discuss concerns or shortcomings regarding the use of the BIE...

What do you consider the biggest benefit of using the BIE ...

Analysis of the data from these instruments revealed several important details. The data presented on Table 1 suggests that, although each of the cooperating teachers used the device for the minimum number of times (seven), two teachers (07 and 09) cued more heavily on skills outside the target area, such as classroom management. The large variation in number of cues given within the target skill area suggests that some teachers were more comfortable using the device and, thus, cued their student teacher on the specific clarity skill target behaviors more and more consistently. Student teachers who were cued on the target clarity skill behaviors did, however, effect immediate change in their teaching behaviors. The range for immediate response to the clarity skill cues given was 83 percent to 100 percent, with the overall average rate of response at 88 percent.

Regardless of the comfort level of the cooperating teacher with the technology, however, the overall effectiveness of the technology was rated high by the cooperating teachers (Table 2). The cooperating teachers rated highest the ability for the student teachers to easily adapt to the BIE technology. Cooperating teachers also reported that the device could effectively assist in providing appropriate feedback while student teachers were engaged in teaching. In addition, student teachers generally reported the use of the BIE device as contributing to a supportive, reassuring, non-threatening supervision-observation atmosphere while providing useful feedback for further discussion. This study, therefore, offered evidence in support of the hypothesis that student teachers who receive audio-cuing during the teaching process can attend to two sets of verbal stimuli and do effect immediate change in their teaching behaviors.