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La Educación
Número: (115) II
Año: 1993


1. Perry Anderson, Lineages of the Absolutist State (Verso, London, 1979) 26.
2. Pierre Vilar, The History of Gold and Money (London: New Left Books, 1976) 63-64.
3. Marco Encalada, Presentation at Cuenca, Ecuador, November 24, 1992.
4. Paolo Rodolfo Leopoldo, “Deforestation in the Amazon Region,” Interciencia (Nov.-Dec. 1989): 283.
5. Roberto P. Guimaraes, “La ecopolítica del ‘Desarrollo Sustentable’: Una visión latinoamericana de la agenda global sobre medio ambiente,” La Política Internacional y América Latina: Los Temas Clave de la Agenda Global, Richard Russell, ed. (Buenos Aires: Grupo Editor Latinamericano, 1990) 18.
6. P. M. Fearnside, “Land Use Trends in the Brazilian Amazon Region as Factors in Accelerating Deforestation,” Environmental Conservation 10.2 (1983): 141-148.
7. Lester Brown, State of the World (New York: World Watch Institute, 1992) 12.
8. Brown, 106.
9. Proyecto  de  Manejo  y  Conservación  de  los  Recursos  Naturales  Renovables  de  la  Cuenca del  Rio  Chixoy,  General  Secretariat  of  the  Organization  of  American States, Washington, D.C., 1991, 9.
10. El Salvador: Perfil Ambiental, Estudio de Campo, USAID,Washington, D.C., 1985, 5.
11. George Foy and Herman Daly, Allocation, Distribution and Scale as Determinants of Environmental Degradation: Case Studies of Haiti, El Salvador and Costa Rica, Environment Department Working Paper No. 19, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., September 1989, 13.
12. Fay and Daly, 13.
13. Barbara Ward and Rene Dubos, Only One Earth (London: Pelikan Books, 1972).
14. UNEP: The Strategy for the Development of the Caribbean Environment Programme, CEP Technical Report No. 5, UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme, Kingston, Jamaica, 1990.
15. M. Karshenus, “Environment, Development and Employment,” Environment, Employment and Development, A. S. Bhalla (Geneva: International Labor Office, 1992) 11.
16. Gareth Porter and Inji Islam, The Road from Rio, ( Washington, D.C.: Environmental and Energy Study Institute, 1992) 1.
17. “Global Aid and Environmental Governance after the Earth Summit,” Development (1993): 1; 3.   
18. Porter and Islam, 1.
19. Paolo Bifani, “Desarrollo sostenible, población y pobreza: Algunas reflexiones conceptuales.” Presentation given at the Congreso Iberoamericano de Educación Ambiental, Guadalajara, México, November 1992.
20. Osvaldo Sunkel, “Development Styles and the Environment: An Interpretation of the Latin American Case,” From Dependency to Development, Heraldo Muñoz, Editor. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1981) 95.
21. See, for example, A. S. Bhalla and P. Bifani, “Some Global Issues,” in Environment, Employment and Development, A. S. Bhalla, Editor. (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1992) 141-160.
22. A. S. Bhalla, “The Rio Summit and After,” Development 1 (1993): 74.
23. Robert Repetto, “Accounting for Environmental Assets,” Scientific American (June 1992): 94.
24. Development Connections, Society for International Development, January 1993, 4.
25. Development Connections, 4.
26. In the Amazon Basin, maintaining pastureland after the forests have been cut requires significant inputs of costly phosphates.  The investment necessary could not be justified without massive subsidies from the state.  Those who propose to invest in large-scale ranching in the Amazon region of Brazil are presented with a generous menu of financial incentives to do so by the government through programs administered by the Superintendency for the Development of Amazonia (SUDAM) and the Superintendency for the Manaus Free Trade Zone (SUFRAMA).  Available programs grant income tax exemptions on profits from ranching operations; they also allow a diversified enterprise to avoid income tax on profits derived from non-ranching activities by investing this money in ranching operations.  While these subsidies have been somewhat curtailed in recent years, the reason for the restraint has been lack of available funding rather than a basic policy decision.
In Guatemala, the problem of deforestation has accelerated rapidly because of a lack of national policy on the development of natural resources.  The situation is aggravated by the lack of enforcement for the sketchy protection policy that does exist.
In El Salvador, one of the major factors that caused the destruction of the coastal mangrove swamps and adjacent perennial ecosystems was the opening of a coastal highway in 1962.  In recent years, of course, heavy damage was inflicted on the natural environment of the country by the tactics of the civil war.  Throughout the conflict, rural areas were targeted by the government’s counterinsurgency campaign, which included scorched earth policies and heavy, indiscrimminate bombing.  In 1983, the Salvadoran army intensified its military operations in the countryside and sought to remove civilian populations from targeted areas by destroying their means of subsistence and the vital components of the environment in which they lived. The removal campaign accelerated environmental deterioration by bringing deliberate destruction to specific rural areas.  These campaigns were broadened in scope in 1986 to include the environs of the volcanic peaks in the interior valley of the country and, ultimately, the summits of the peaks, themselves, some of which were insurgent strongholds.  Targeting the volcanic peaks for bombing and burning was particularly damaging from an environmental perspective, for it was in these areas that the remaining hectares of pristine forest were found. The forests atop the mountain peaks, while they may have provided cover for insurgent forces, also formed part of the watershed for surrounding valleys and regulated the flow of rivers and streams.
In Peru, the government has ranked mining as a high economic priority, and both the spirit and the letter of the law reflect this.  The law does not establish effective mechanisms for controlling the waste from the mining industry, which seriously affects adjacent populations.  When petroleum was discovered in the country, the government authorized exploration in the National Reserve Pacaya Samiria and in the National Park of Manu.  These authorizations directly countermanded previously established norms regulating activities in protected areas.
27. Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, edited and translated by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith ( New York, NY,: International Publishers, 1980) 25.
28. The Latin American countries included in the survey were: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela. The Caribbean countries included only the English-speaking OAS Member States.
29. Marco Encalada, “La Educación Ambiental en el Continente, Rutas Para Una Revolución Espiritual,” mimeo, 1991.
30. Marco Encalada.
31. Marco Encalada, 21.
32. Marco Encalada, 47.
33. Sunkel, in Muñoz, 109.
34. The Global Partnership for Environment and Development: A Guide to Agenda 21.  (Geneva: UNCED, 1992) 93.
35. R. Goodland, H. Daly, and S. El Serafy, “Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development: Building on Brundtland,” a Working Paper of the Environment Department, The World Bank, Washington, July 1991.