24 de Marzo de 2019
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La Educación
Número: (114) I
Año: 1993


1. The World Bank Indicators, 1987.
2. Harrison, Underdevelopment Is a State of Mind: “The differences between North America and Latin America are enormous, covering virtually all aspects of life. The North American and the Latin American have differing concepts of the individual, society, and the relationship between the two; of justice and law; of life and death; of government; of the family; of relations between the sexes; of organization of time; of enterprise; of religion; of morality. These differences have contributed to the evolution of societies which are more unlike one another than our past policy makers appear to have appreciated. In fact, it can be argued that there are some Asian societies (Japan is an obvious candidate) which have more in common with the societies of North America than most of the societies of Latin America.”
3. Vital Didonet (1983); Bernard van Leer Foundation (1986); Programas de Atendimento ao Pre-Escolar - Relato de uma Experiencia (1985). During the 1980s, Brazil developed an extensive program of pre-school education in the states and municipalities. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution determines especial provision for pre-school education at the municipal level.
4. EDUCO is a community-based program developed in the rural areas of El Salvador. The program is supported by the World Bank. The Ministry of Education is using the model to deliver education in the rural areas and provides technical and financial support. Schools are managed by the rural communities (around 1400 classrooms). Under this program around 40,000 students are enrolled in preschool and the first three grades of primary education (1992). Teachers are hired by the community groups who follow very closely the school activities and provide the basic inputs needed by students and teachers. Teachers and community-groups are trained by the Ministry of Education. The experience has been considered as a successful means of involving parents in the delivery of education.
5. Brazil: MEC/SEEC, Sinopse Estatistica, 1988.
6. 1988 Brazilian Constitution, Chapter VI; Article 34, Paragraph VII, c.