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Colección:
INTERAMER
Número: 71
Año: 2002
Autor: Johann Van Reenen, Editor
Título: Digital Libraries and Virtual Workplaces. Important Initiatives for Latin America in the Information Age

VII. Case Study: Investments in Science and Technology

In the group of industrialized nations known as the Group of 7, industries are responsible for 50-70% of S&T. Resources originate from both the industrial and government sectors, yet most of them are spent in the industrial sector. In the US, the government mainly sponsors basic R&D, while both industries and the government sponsor applied R&D. Universities are responsible for a large portion of this basic R&D, and industries finance approximately 7% of their needs (Organization of American States 1997 and National Science Board 2000). In Latin-America R&D is primarily sponsored by governments. Brazil, Cuba, Chile and Costa Rica are the only countries in Latin America and the Caribbean with greater than 1% investment of their GDP in R&D. It is interesting to observe the amount of expenditures in S&T as well as where the talent is found.

Ratio of R&D to GDP (1997 Figures)
U.S.A
2.3%
Germany
2.4%
France
2.0%
Japan
2.7%
U.K.
1.9%
Italy
1.7%
Canada
1.5%
Brazil
1.2%
Cuba
1.5%
Russia
0.5%
Latin America and the Caribbean average
0.5%

Expenditures in S&T (1997 Figures)
U.S.A.
$185 billion
Canada
$11 billion
Brazil
$9.1 billion
Spain
$5.4 billion
Mexico
$1.7 billion
Argentina
$1.4 billion

Human Resources in S&T (1997 Figures)
U.S.A
1 million
Canada
100,000
Spain and Portugal
63,000
Latin-America

(Brazil 50,000; Argentina 29,000;
Mexico 15,000)
126,000
Rest in Latin America
Under 10,000