20 de Enero de 2018
Portal Educativo de las Américas
  Idioma:
 Imprima esta Página  Envie esta Página por Correo  Califique esta Página  Agregar a mis Contenidos  Página Principal 
¿Nuevo Usuario? - ¿Olvidó su Clave? - Usuario Registrado:     

Búsqueda



Colección: INTERAMER
Número: 69
Año: 2000
Autor: Ramón López and Juan Carlos Jordán, Editors
Título: Sustainable Development in Latin America: Financing and Policies Working in Synergy

TABLE 1
SPECTRUM OF POLICY INSTRUMENTS WITH ECONOMIC INCENTIVES


CONTROL-ORIENTED
MARKET ORIENTED
LITIGATION-ORIENTED
Regulations
& Sanctions
General Examples
Charges,
Taxes & Fees
Market
Creation
Final Demand
Intervention
Liability
Legislation
 
Standards:

Government restricts nature and amount of pollution or resource use for individual polluters or resource users.

Compliance is monitored and sanctions levied (fines, closure, jail terms) for non-compliance.

 
Effluent or User Charges:

Government charges fee to individual polluters or resource users based on amount of pollution or resource use and nature of receiving medium.

Fee is high enough to create incentive to reduce impacts.

 
Tradable Permits:

Government establishes a system of tradable pollution or resource-use permits, auctions or distributes permits, and monitors compliance.

Polluters or resource users trade permits at unregulated market prices.

 
Performance Rating:

Government supports a labeling or performance rating program that requires disclosure of environmental information on the final end-use product.

Performance based on adoption of ISO 14000 voluntary guidelines.

Eco-labels attached to “environmentally friendly” products.
 
Strict Liability Legislation:

The polluter or resource user is required by law to pay any damages to those affected.

Damaged parties collect settlements through litigation and court system.

Specific Examples of Applications
  • Pollution standards
  • Licensing of economic activities
  • Land-use restrictions
  • Construction impact regulations for roads, pipelines, ports, or communications grids
  • Environmental guidelines
  • Fines for spills from port or land-based storage facilities
  • Bans applied to materials deemed unacceptable for solid-waste collection services
  • Wateruse quotas
  • Non-compliance pollution charges
  • Greening of conventional taxes
  • Royalties and financial compensation for natural resources exploitation
  • Taxes affecting inter-modal transport choices
  • Taxes to encourage re-use or recycling of problem materials
  • Tipping fees on solid wastes
  • User charges for water
  • Market-based expropriation for construction, including “environmental values”
  • Property rights attached to resources potentially affected by urban development (forests, lands, artisanal fish)
  • Deposit-refund systems for solid and hazardous wastes
  • Tradable permits for water abstraction rights, and water and air pollution emissions
  • Consumer product labeling (eco-labels) relating to problem materials (e.g., phosphates in detergents)
  • Education regarding recycling and re-use
  • Disclosure legislation requiring manufacturers to publish solid, liquid, and toxic waste generation
  • Blacklist of polluters
  • Damages compensation
  • Liability on neglecting firm’s managers and environmental authorities
  • Long-term performance bonds posted for potential or uncertain hazards from infrastructure construction
  • “Zero Net Impact” requirements for road alignments, pipelines or utility rights of way, and water crossings
Source: Serôada Motta, Huber, and Ruitenbeek (1999).