José Luis Romero
Latin America: Its Cities and Ideas
1. The tianguis
was, originally, the trading in Indian textiles; by extension, the term came
to designate the open market where such trading took place.
boxrefers here to little booths made of wood with room enough
for one person and some merchandise.
3. Hidalguia refers
to the essential condition that distinguishes noblemen hidalgosfrom
the common people: honorable ancestry, manly virtues, social high rank, wealth,
and the exemption from the taxes owed to the Crown by peasants and townspeople.
4. The noun indiano
was coined to refer to the Spaniard who had lived in the Indies, whereproverbiallyhe
had amassed a large fortune. With time, the indiano became the stereotype
of the lesser hidalgos with great ambitions and dubious ancestry.
5. Chapetón designated
during the colonial period the Spaniard newly arrived in America.
6. Criado is not
the exact equivalent of servant. It designates a person who has been brought
up, cared for and educated by some patron and is considered a member of his
7. Estancia is
a Spanish American term that designates a large extension of farmland mostly
devoted to cattle raising.
knightwas the term used to refer to hidalgos of well-known
ancestry and considerable rank.
neighboris the term that designated a permanent resident of
a village, town or city, that is a citizen.