Author: Harry Beleván
Title: The Heirs of Ariadne
1. Maurice Blanchot quite rightly refers to this in: The encounter with the imaginary space (part one of The Sirens Song), when wondering about the land of source and origin to which the Sirens music led Ulysses. Le livre à venir, Col. Idées (Paris: Gallimard, 1971); especially Chapter I, parts I and II-1; Chapter II, parts VII and VIII, on literary imagination. Also: J.P. Sartre, Limagination (Paris: Presses universitaires, 1936); Limaginaire, (Paris: Gallimard, 1940) and Jeanne Bernis, Limagination (Paris: P.U.F., 1969).
2. Jean Lacroix, Le sens de la transcendance, Le Monde (1974, 15). For the mechanisms of origin suggested, two basic works on the subject: Gabrielle Dufour- Kowalska, Lorigine. Lessence de lorigine (Paris: Editions Beauchêsne,1973); and Emmanuel Levinas, Autrement quêtre ou au-delá de lessence (Paris: Editions Nijhoff, 1973).
8. Translators note: For purposes of the English edition, the author explains that descripture stands as a construed expression (a meaningful derivative accidence of the sort: innovation/invention = innovention), coined with the sole purpose of conveying the combination of the two different though simultaneous components inherent to the nature of the fantastic, in order to capture within one wordor semanteme as it is called in linguistics, the feeling of the literary fantastic: description, i.e., the plot (whats the story?) of a given text and scripting (a verb form of the English noun script, a cognate of the Latin verb scribere, meaning writing), i.e., the manner (how is it written?) by which such text is transmitted. The word descritura (an inflectional form of the traditional mode and substance or text and context, meant to counteract the evanescent ambivalence of the fantastic) has therefore been translated as descripture.
9. We suggest the word episteme from the Greek gnosis and from that etymological root of the term that conveys the notion of treatise; hence, in functional terms episteme would express the notion of initial knowledge of the fantastic, prior to its discourse.
10. In extenso: Dan Sperber, Rethinking Symbolism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1975). In a more explicit vein, one might cite: Gilles Deleuze, Marcel Proust et les signes (Paris: P.U.F., 1964) where the author argues the perceptual inexistence of Proust, who only responds to the stimuli from the signs, from the signals. See also note 81.
16. Jean-Luc Nancy, La remarque spéculative, col. La philosophie en effet (Paris: Galilé, 1973). One could also link these linguistic concepts with the principles proposed by Freud in : Opposite meanings in primitive words, Fourth Report Essais de psychanalyse appliquée, col. Idées (Paris: Gallimard, 1973). We sense that the precipitate manner of behavior of which S.F. speaks in reference to languages is closely linked to the textual slips inherent in the words that make up languages.
19. Robert Volmat, Lart psychopathologique. Abord Psychopathologique du fantastique, Bosch, Goya et le fantastique, ed. Gilberte Martin-Méry Bordeaux (1957), for an exhibit of what were called fantastic paintings, held in Bordeaux, France in 1957.
29. Rodolfo Walsh, Antología del cuento extraño (Buenos Aires: Editorial Hachette, 1956); Emilio Carilla, El cuento fantástico (Buenos Aires: Editorial Hachette, 1968); and Nicolás Cócaro, Cuentos fantásticos argentinos (Buenos Aires: Emecé publishers, 1960).
37. By in-it-self we understand, in this case, a knowable essence and thus contrary to Kants numen, or at least not part of Kants phenomenon/numen dialogue. Accordingly, this itself would be unrelated to Hegels ansich since the former has to do with an essence or origin, just as we tried to reflect with the word episteme; (See note 8). It should be recalled that even though it is basically inconsistent or unknown, the itself of Sartre (an obvious transposition of Hegels ansich) can acquire a certain presence (when it is consciousness of itself, for example) so that our term is not a liberty that we take freely or independently of its established usage.
41. The Sopena French-Spanish Dictionary (1964) suggests as equivalents of the French adjective féerique the words magical and marvelous, neither of which is satisfactory since they both have their exact French translationmagique and mérveilleuxwhich Vax did not use. The Larousse defines the word fée (fairy)the etymological root of féeriqueas a supernatural power, the same notion we found (preternatural power) in the Spanish-language dictionary for the word enchantment. Since the word for fairy (in Spanish hada) cannot be made into an adjective we opt instead to translate féerique as encantamiento (enchantment) bearing in mind, too, that the author has used this adjective without suggesting any particular meaning. One can therefore assume that Vax opts for the grammatical meaning that his language requires. It is surprising that without any explanation, Vax subordinates one adjectiveféerique (encantamiento) enchantmentto another that is synonymousmérveilleux (maravilloso) marvelousan idiomatic value judgment, for lack of a better expression, that he should have at least explained...
45. Roger Caillois, Antología del cuento fantástico (Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1967). We have also consulted the many essays and books in which Caillois work on the fantastic appears, in particular: Obliques (Paris: Editions Stock, 1974) and the two earlier works in this series titled: Approches de lImaginaire. And although we recognize the erudition of this true theoretician of the uncanny and of the natural fantastic, as he tends to call it, we also believe that his most original work is in the field of esotericism.
52. Tolkien, J.R.R., Tree and Leaf (London: Allen & Unwin, 1964) 14. (In the original Spanish version of this study, we used the Spanish fantástico where Tolkien used fantasy. In Tolkien, as in Coleridge, one finds the ambiguous notion of imaginary fancy, which has no precise translation in Spanish, since the word fantasía would fail to capture the English meaning of the word).
53. J.L. Borges, Cahiers de lHerne 8 (Paris: 1966) dedicated to Henri Michaux; Borges confuses fantasy with fantastic, despite what Brion stated and what we just noted in the preceding footnote.... Obviously he intended something else.
57. Sigmund Freud, The Uncanny, Studies in Parapsychology (New York: MacMillan Publishers, 1963). See citations in S.F., Essais de psychanalyse appliquée, col. Idées (Paris, 1973)163, 164, 167, 172.
58. Bernard Merigot, Linquiétante étrangeté. Note sur lunheimliche, Littérature 8 (Paris: Larousse, 1972)100, 101; Helène Cixous, La fiction et ses fantômes, une lecture de lUnheimliche de Freud, Poétique 10 (Paris, 1972).
64. By deconstruction we mean what Irène Bessière infers by it, what Roland Barthes would call destructuration; Destructuration du texte proustien, Etudes proustiennes II; Cahiers Marcel Proust 7(Paris: Gallimard, 1975), which is closely related to the etymology of the term deconstruction, used by Derrida, for example, where a sophisticated interpretational mechanism enters into play....
69. Colloquium organized by Golberto Gadoffre, on the subject of: Science and Value Judgment, at the Institut collégial européen, Loches, France, July 1974. Participants included Balandier, Gross, Perroux, Serrès and Starobinski.
70. (See in extenso, J.P. Sartre, La transcendance de lego: Esquisse dune déscription phénoménologique, Recherches philosophiques VI (Paris: Hatier, 1937); and Chapter V, Ontological proof, part one, Introduction to the search for being, Being and NothingnessLetre et le neant (Paris: Gallimard, 1948)-where Sartre states that all consciousness is consciousness of something (p. 27) and where he proposes the ulterior development of the objective/subjective consciousness, immanent/transcendent, and of the Husserlian contradiction of noema irreal, all theses closely tied in with the epistemological analysis of the fantastic.
80. By way of illustration, see, for example, how children assess the world when they read fairy tales and the so-called magical literature, Sybill Schönfeldt, Mutti, was soll ich lesen? (Munich, 1971).